Production Guide — Helmet Card Documentation (2023)

The following are items to consider when using this Helm chart in a production environment.

Data bank

It is recommended to set up an external database for the Airflow metastore. The default Helm chart implements a Postgres database running in a container. For production use, a database running on a dedicated computer or using a database service from a cloud provider such as AWS RDS is recommended. Supported databases and versions can be found atConfigure the database backend.


When using a Helm chart, you do not need to initialize the database withair flow database Startas described inConfigure the database backend.

First, disable Postgres so that the diagram doesn't implement its own Postgres container:

postgresql: capable: vals

To provide database credentials to Airflow, you have two options: in your values ​​file or in the Kubernetes secret.

value file

These are the simplest options, since the graph will create the secret of Kubernetes for you. However, note that your credentials are in your values ​​file.

the facts: metapodaciVerbinding: user:  spend:  protocol: postgresql host:  porta: 5432 database: 

The secret of Kubernetes

You can also store credentials in a Kubernetes secret that you create yourself. Note that special characters in username/password must be URL encoded.

kubectl to make secret In general my database --verbatim=connection=postgresql://user:pass@host:5432/db

Finally, configure the chart to use the secret you created:

the facts: metadadosSecretName: my database


ako korositieAipoExecutorand Airflow version <2.4Keep that in mindresultadoBackendSecretNameexpects a URL starting withdatabase+postgresql://, whilemetadadosSecretNameto waitpostgresql://and will not work withdatabase+postgresql://. You must create separate secrets with the correct schema. For version Airflow >=2.4is it possible to omit the backend secret from the results that will be used by Airflowsql_alchemy_conn(Cited inmetapodaciGeheim) with a schema prefix of db+ by default.


If you use PostgreSQL as your database, you probably want to enable itPgBouncerAirflow can open many database connections due to its distributed nature, and using a connection pool can significantly reduce the number of open database connections.

pgbouncer: capable: WHERE

Depending on the size of your Airflow instance, you can also customize the following (default values ​​are shown):

pgbouncer: # Maximum number of connections to PgBouncer maxClientConn: 100 # Maximum number of server connections to the PgBouncer metadata database metadadosPoolSize: 10 # Maximum number of server connections to the PgBouncer backend results database resultadoBackendPoolSize: 5
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The secret key of the web server

When deploying this image you must set a static secret for the web server as this will ensure that the Airflow components are only restarted when necessary.


You must use a different secret key for each instance you run, as this key is used to sign session cookies and perform other security functions!

First, generate a strong secret key:

python3 -C 'import secrets; print(secrets.token_hex(16))'

Now add the secret to your values ​​file:

webSecretKey service provider: 

You can also create and use a Kubernetes secretwebSecretKeySecretName service provider:

webSecretKeySecretName service provider: my-secret-server# where the random key in `webserver-secret-key` is in k8s Secret

An example for creating a Kubernetes secretkubectl:

kubectl to make secret In general my-secret-server --verbatim="webserver-secret-key=$(python3 -C 'import secrets; print(secrets.token_hex(16))')"

The web server key is also used to authorize requests to Celery employees when logs are retrieved. A token generated using a secret key has a short expiration time. Make sure the time is synchronized on ALL the machines you run the airflow components on (eg using ntpd) or you could get 'forbidden' errors when the logs are opened.

Expand and adjust the airflow image

The Apache Airflow community publishes Docker images that arereference Suchfor the Apache Airstream. However, Airflow has more than 60 community managed providers (which can be installed via plugins) and some of the pre-installed plugins/providers are not used by everyone, sometimes other plugins/providers are needed, sometimes (very often actually) you need to create your own extras / providers add dependencies, packages, or even custom providers, or add custom tools and binaries needed for your deployment.

In terms of Kubernetes and Docker, this means you need a different image with your specific requirements. So you have to learn how to build your own image.Dock worker(or ratherBracket) picture.

Typical scenarios where you want to use your custom image:

  • To addanswerpackage

  • To addPyPIpackage

  • Adding the necessary binary resources for your deployment

  • Adding the necessary custom tools to your deployment

verimage buildingfor more information on how to expand and adjust the airflow image.

Manage DAY files

verManaging DAG files.

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famous hosts

ako korositiedags.gitSync.sshKeySecret, you must also definedags.gitSync.knownHosts. Here we show the process for GitHub, but the same can be done for any provider:

Get the public key from GitHub:

ssh-keyscan -T RSA > github_public_key

Then print the public key printout:

ssh-key -se github_public_key

Compare this output withGitHub SSH Key Fingerprinting.

They fit, don't they? Good. Now add the public key to your values. It will be something like this:

time of day: gitSync: famous hosts: | ssh-rsa AAAA...1/wsjk=

Access to the Airflow user interface

How you access the Airflow user interface depends on your environment; however, the chart supports several options:


You can create and configureforbiddenobjects. seeEnter the chart parameters.For more information onforbidden, LookKubernetes Ingress documentation.


You can change the type of web server service toload balancerand set the necessary notes:

web server: employ: tip: load balancer

For more information aboutload balancerservices, seeKubernetes LoadBalancer service documentation.


Depending on your choice of executor, job logs may not work by default. You can find all registration options heremanage the administration.


A graph can support sending statistics to an existing StatsD instance or provide a Prometheus endpoint.


The metric endpoint is available atsvc/{{ .Fire.Name }}-statsd:9102/metrics.

External statisticsD

To use an external instance of StatsD:

stands: capable: valsinstitution: Statistics: # or 'planner' for airflow 1 on_state: WHERE host_statistics: ... port_state: ...
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data dog

If you use a Datadog agent in your environment, it allows Airflow to export statistics to the Datadog agent.

stands: capable: valsinstitution: Statistics: # or 'planner' for airflow 1 on_state: WHERE port_state: 8125extraEnv: |- - naziv: AIRFLOW__METRICS__STATSD_HOST the courage: campoRef: veldPath: status.hostIP

Background van aipo

ako korositieAipoExecutorfromAipoKubernetesExecutor, you can bring your own Celery wallpaper.

By default the graph is implemented by Redis. However, you can use any supported Celery backend:

again: capable: valsthe facts: brokerUrl: redis://redis-user:password@redis-host:6379/0

For more information on setting up the Celery broker, see the extensive documentCelery documentation on this topic.

Restrictions in the security context

ASecurity Context Limit(SCC) is an OpenShift construct that works as an RBAC rule; however, it focuses on pods rather than users. Defining an SCC allows you to control the actions and resources that a POD can perform or access during startup and execution.

SCCs are divided into different levels or categories slimitedSCC is the default value assigned to pods. By implementing Airflow on OpenShift you can use SCCs and allow pods to run containers usingyour momSCC.

To enable the use of SCCs, you must set the parameterrbac.createSCCRoleBindingforWHEREas shown below:

rbac: to make: WHERE criarSCCRoleBinding: WHERE

In this diagram, SCCs are connected to pods via RoleBindings, which means an optionrbac. to createmust also be defined asWHEREfully enable the use of SCC.

For more information on SCCs and what can be achieved with this build, seeManage restrictions in the security context.

security context

In Kubernetes onesecurity contextcan be used to define user IDs, group IDs, and resources, such as running containers in privileged mode.

When deploying an application to Kubernetes, it is recommended to grant least privilege to containers to limit access and secure the host on which the container is running.

In the Airflow Helm chart,security contextIt can be configured in several ways:

The same way you use globalsecurity contexts, you can also configure different values ​​for specific workloads by setting their local valuessecurity contextsas follows:

employees: security contexts: Fulani: runAsUser: 5.000 fs group: 0 containers: allow privilege escalation: vals
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In the example above, the Task subsecurity contextswill be setrunAsUser: 5.000efs group: 0. The container is set toallow privilege escalation: vals.

As you can see, the local setting overrides the global setting when set. The priority rule is explained below forsecurity contextsoptions in this diagram:

UID: 40.000feliz: 0security contexts: Fulani: runAsUser: 50.000 fs group: 0employees: security contexts: Fulani: runAsUser: 1001 fs group: 0

This generates the following worker deployment:

tip: StatefulSetAPI version: applications/v1metapodaci: To do: air flow workerspecification: Service name: air flow worker model: specification: security context: # Since securityContexts is defined in ``workers'', its value will take precedence runAsUser: 1001 fs group: 0

If we delete bothsecurity contextseemployees, security contextsfrom the example above, the output will be:

UID: 40.000feliz: 0security contexts: {}employees: security contexts: {}

This generates the following worker deployment:

tip: StatefulSetAPI version: applications/v1metapodaci: To do: air flow workerspecification: Service name: air flow worker model: specification: security context: runAsUser: 40.000 # Since no security context is defined in ``workers'' or ``podSecurity'', the uid value will be used fs group: 0 # Since the security context is not defined in ``workers'' or ``podSecurity'', the gid value will be used initContainers: - To do: wait for airflow migration ... containers: - To do: worker ...

And finally if we definesecurity contextsbut noemployees, security contexts:

UID: 40.000feliz: 0security contexts: Fulani: runAsUser: 50.000 fs group: 0employees: security contexts: {}

This generates the following worker deployment:

tip: StatefulSetAPI version: applications/v1metapodaci: To do: air flow workerspecification: Service name: air flow worker model: specification: security context: # Since securityContexts is not defined in ``workers'', securityContexts values ​​will take precedence runAsUser: 50.000 fs group: 0 initContainers: - To do: wait for airflow migration ... containers: - To do: worker ...

Embedded secrets and environment variables

Helm Chart uses standard Kubernetes secrets to store the secrets needed by Airflow. By default, the contents of those secrets are converted into environment variables that Airflow reads (some environment variables have multiple variants to support older versions of Airflow).

By default, secrets are determined based on the version name used when the Helm diagram is deployed, but you can also use a different secret to define variables, or disable the use of secrets entirely and trust variables. use_CMDfrom__SECRETenvironment variable variant.

However, Airflow supports other variants of the secret configuration - you can issue a system command to automatically retrieve and rotate the secret (by setting a variable with_CMDsuffix) or to retrieve a variable from a supported secret (by defining the variable s_SECRETsuffix).

See Fr>is placed, takes precedence over_CMDe_SECRETvariant, so if you have one of_CMDfrom_SECRETvariants, you MUST disable built-in invariants fetched from Kubernetes secrets by is false.

For example, if you want to use the command to retrieve a database connection, you must (in yourvalues.yamlfile) specify:

extraEnv: AIRFLOW_CONN_AIRFLOW_DB_CMD: "/usr/local/bin/retrieve_connection_url"enableBuiltInSecretEnvVars: AIRFLOW_CONN_AIRFLOW_DB: vals

Here is the full list of secrets that can be disabled and replaced_CMDe_SECRETvariants:

Default secret name if no secret name is specified

Use another Kubernetes secret

Ambient variable airflow

airflow metadata



- Network key



- the secret key of the web server



-airflow result-background





- elastic search




There are also several secrets, whose names are also determined based on the version name, that do not need to be disabled. It's because they don't follow the rules_CMDfrom_SECRETby default are variables that do not start withAIR FLOW__, or have no corresponding variable.

you i i a_AIR FLOW__*variable,AIRFLOW__CELERY__FLOWER_BASIC_AUTH, which does not need to be disabled even if you have_CMDe_SECRETvariant. This variable is not defined by default. It is defined only when.Values.flower.secretNameis set or when.values.flower.usere.values.flower.passwordare ready. So if you don't have any of the.Values.flower.*variables, you can freely configure basic flower authentication using_CMDfrom_SECRETvariant without deactivating the base variant.

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Default secret name if no secret name is specified

Use another Kubernetes secret

Ambient variable airflow

-redis password





-pgbouncer certificates



-kerberos-table with keys




You can read more about advanced ways to set configuration variables atSet configuration options.


What are the restrictions on a motorcycle permit in Massachusetts? ›

Limitations with a Class M Permit

Motorcycle permit holders may only drive a motorcycle during daylight hours between sunrise and sunset. Permit holders may not carry passengers on a motorcycle. Motorcyclists under the age of 18 are not allowed to drive a motorcycle between the hours of 12:30 a.m. and 5 a.m.

What are the responsibilities of an importer? ›

As the importer, you are responsible for accurately declaring your products to Customs. Consult an expert to make sure you get it right. Learn everything possible about your product to find out what regulations it is subject to. Make sure you have all commercial, licensing, and other documentation in order.

What are engine seizures most often attributable to? ›

Engine seizure is caused by overheating or lack of lubrication. Without oil, the engine's moving parts will no longer move smoothly against each other, and the engine will overheat.

Where to get a Maryland drivers manual? ›

Please study the Maryland Driver's Manual and practice with the Maryland Online Driver Test Tutorial to prepare for the knowledge test before coming in to the MVA to apply for your learner's permit. The manual can be downloaded or pick up a copy at any MVA branch office.

Can I drive around with a motorcycle permit? ›

A motorcycle permit is valid for six months in California. When holding a motorcycle permit, riders are allowed to ride alone, but may not travel on a motorcycle on the freeway or after dark.

Can you ride alone with a motorcycle permit in Massachusetts? ›

Yes, in Massachusetts, you can drive with a permit. As a permit holder, you cannot carry passengers or drive at night. And must always wear a helmet and eye protection. Permits are only applicable to those under 18 motorcycle drivers.

What are the requirements of importer? ›

File Bill of Entry and other documents to complete customs clearing formalities:
  • certificate of origin.
  • certificate of inspection.
  • bill of exchange.
  • commercial invoice cum packing list.
May 19, 2022

What do you need to be an importer of record? ›

Who can act as the Importer of Record? The Importer of Record is the owner, purchaser, or consignee who has the ownership of imported goods at the time of importation. However, a licensed Customs broker authorized to make entry by the owner, purchaser, or consignee can also act as the IOR.

What is the liability of importer of record? ›

They will also be responsible for paying fees, duties, and taxes associated with importing goods and completing the required documentation and paperwork. The importer of record is the entity liable for all risks associated with clearing the goods.

What are 3 triggers that may cause a seizure? ›

What are some commonly reported triggers?
  • Specific time of day or night.
  • Sleep deprivation – overtired, not sleeping well, not getting enough sleep, disrupted sleep.
  • Illness (both with and without fever)
  • Flashing bright lights or patterns.
  • Alcohol - including heavy alcohol use or alcohol withdrawal.

What is the 4 way stop law in Maryland? ›

Maryland law actually tells you to whom you must yield while you are driving. In the case of a four way stop, the law states that all drivers must yield to the vehicle operator who arrived and came to a complete stop first.

Is Maryland driving test easy? ›

Maryland has the third hardest driving test, according to a new study. A new study found the Maryland driving test is the third hardest to pass in the U.S. Passing your driving test in Maryland is no easy feat.

When a driver needs to turn right at an intersection and the signal is red? ›

You may make your turn even if there is a red light for vehicles going straight through the intersection. If there is a traffic light or sign on the right curb of the right turn lane, you must obey that light or sign.

What conditions are allowed to drive in Massachusetts with a learners permit? ›

Learner's permit holders may drive when accompanied by an driver who is licensed, who is at least 21 years of age, who has at least one year of driving experience, and who is occupying a seat beside the driver.

Can I drive by myself with a permit in Massachusetts? ›

You can drive with a learner's permit, but you always need to be with another driver who is at least 21 years old and who has a driver's license. Afterwards, you have to take a driving test. If you pass the driving test, you will get a driver's license with which you can drive alone.

When can you drive with a permit in Mass? ›

The process begins at 16. A teen can apply for a Class D Learner's Permit at 16 years of age. A learner's permit allows a teen to operate a motor vehicle as long as there is a licensed driver age 21 or older present in the passenger seat at all times.

Can you split lanes on a motorcycle in MA? ›

No Lane-Splitting

Lane-splitting is specifically prohibited in Massachusetts. While some motorcyclists believe that lane-splitting is safe, it is illegal in Massachusetts.


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