Create an LLVM toolchain for the Cpu0 architecture (2023)

Since Cpu0 has no hardware floating-point instructions, it needs a floating-point library to complete a floating-point operation. The LLVM compiler-rt project includes a software implementation of the floating-point libraryAfb. 6, so we select it as an implementation.

Since the rt compiler uses the unix/linux rootfs framework, we fill in the gap by adding some empty include files to exlbt/include.

Create an LLVM toolchain for the Cpu0 architecture (1)

Create an LLVM toolchain for the Cpu0 architecture (2)

mesa 2lldb dependencies


it will depend on


new library/libc


sanitizter_printf.c radi compiler-rt

table 3sanitizer_printf.c from the rt compiler dependency


it will depend on


built-in rt translator

C library (Newlib)

Newlib is a bare metal C library. The two libraries in newlib are libc and libm. libc is for IO functions, supported by files and strings, while libm is for math functions. newlib web is here[1]van newlib/libm hier[2]Since the following section of compiler-rt/builtins depends on libm, run the following bash script to install and create a new lib for CPU0.


#!/usr/bin/env bash# provjerite da li je riječ o newlib-cygwinNEWLIB_PARENT_DIR=$HOME/gitNEWLIB_DIR=$NEWLIB_PARENT_DIR/newlib-cygwinCURR_DIR=`pwd`CC=$HOME/llvm/test/build/bin/clangCFLAGS="- target cpu0el-unknown-linux-gnu -static -fintegrated-as -Wno-error=implicit-function-declaration"AS="$HOME/llvm/test/build/bin/clang -static -fintegrated-as -c"AR ="$HOME/llvm/test/build/bin/llvm-ar"RANLIB="$HOME/llvm/test/build/bin/llvm-ranlib"READELF="$HOME/llvm/test/build/bin/llvm -readelf"install_newlib() { pushd $NEWLIB_PARENT_DIR git clone git:// cd newlib-cygwin git checkout dcb25665be227fb5a05497b7178a3d5df88050ec cp $CURR_DIR/newlib.patch. git toepassen newlib.patch cp -rf $CURR_DIR/newlib-cygwin/newlib/libc/machine/cpu0 newlib/libc/machine/. cp -rf $CURR_DIR/newlib-cygwin/libgloss/cpu0 libgloss/. popd}build_cpu0() { rm -rf build-$CPU-$ENDIAN mkdir build-$CPU-$ENDIAN cd build-$CPU-$ENDIAN CFLAGS="-target cpu0$ENDIAN-unknown-linux-gnu -mcpu=$ CPU -static -fintegrated-as -Wno-error=declaração de função implícita" CC=$CC CFLAGS=$CFLAGS AS=$AS AR=$AR RANLIB=$RANLIB READELF=$READELF ../newlib/configure -- host =cpu0 maak cd ..}build_newlib() { pushd $NEWLIB_DIR CPU=cpu032I ENDIAN=eb build_cpu0; CPU=cpu032I ENDIAN=el build_cpu0; CPU=cpu032II ENDIAN=eb build_cpu0; CPU=cpu032II ENDIAN=el build_cpu0; popd}install_newlib;build_newlib;


diff --git a/config.sub b/config.subindex 63c1f1c8b..575e8d9d7 100755--- a/config.sub+++ b/config.sub@@ -1177,6 +1177,7 @@ slučaj $cpu-$dobavljač em | d10v | d30v | dlx | dsp16xx \ | e2k | elxsi | epifanije \ | f30[01] | f700 | fido | fr30 | frv | ft32 | fx80 \+ | cpu0 \ | h8300 | h8500 \ | hpa | hppa1.[01] | hpa2.0 | hppa2.0[nw] | hpa64 \ | šesterokut \diff --git a/newlib/ b/newlib/configure.hostindex ca6b46f03..7bbf46f25 100644--- a/newlib/ b/newlib/ -176,6 +176 ,10 @@ case "${host_cpu}" em fr30) machine_dir=fr30 ;;+ cpu0)+machine_dir=cpu0+newlib_cflags="${newlib_cflags} -DCOMPACT_CTYPE"+;; frv) machine_dir=frv ;;@@ -751,6 +755,9 @@ newlib_cflags="${newlib_cflags} -DCLOCK_PROVIDED -DMALLOC_PROVIDED -DEXIT_PROVID fr30-*-*) syscall_dir=syscalls ;;+ cpu0-*)+syscall_dir =syscalls+;; frv-*-*) syscall_dir=syscalls default_newlib_io_long_long="yes"diff --git a/newlib/libc/include/machine/ieeefp.h b/newlib/libc/include/machine/ieeefp.hindex 3c1f41e03.. 1e79a6b26 100644--- a/newlib/libc/include/machine/ieeefp.h+++ b/newlib/libc/include/machine/ieeefp.h@@ -249,6 +249,16 @@ #define __IEEE_BIG_ENDIAN #endif +/ / makro van vooraf gedefinieerde kompajler (van llc -march=cpu0${ENDIAN} od +// clang -target cpu0${ENDIAN}-unknown-linux-gnu +// / c/pre-defined-c/prearch.html +#ifdef __CPU0EL__+#define __IEEE_LITTLE_ENDIAN+#endif+#ifdef __CPU0EB__+#define __IEEE_BIG_ENDIAN+#endif+ #ifdef __MMIX__ #define __IEEE_BIG_ENDIAN #endif@@ -507 ,4 +517,3 @ @ #endif /* niet __IEEE_LITTLE_ENDIAN */ #endif /* niet __IEEE_BIG_ENDIAN */-diff --git a/newlib/libc/include/sys/unistd.h b/newlib/libc/include/sys/unistd.hindex 3cc313080.. 605929173 100644--- a/newlib/libc/include/sys/unistd.h+++ b/newlib/libc/include/sys/unistd.h@@ -50,7 +50,7 @@ int dup3 (int __fildes, int __fildes2 , sinalizadores int); inteaccess (const char *__put, int __mode); #endif #if __XSI_VISIBLE-voidencrypt (char *__block, int __edflag);+voidencrypt (char *__libc_block, int __edflag); #endif #if __BSD_VISIBLE || (__Xsi_visible && __xsi_visible <500) VoidenDuserShell (void); diff --git a/newLib/libc/stroj/konfiguriranje b/newLib/libc/stroj/configureIndex 62064cdfd..5eec08 100755- configure+++ b/newlib/libc/machine/configure@@ -823,6 +823,7 @@ csky d10v d30v epiphany+cpu0 fr30 frv ft32@@ -12007,6 +12008,8 @@ subdirs="$subdirs a29k" d30v) subdirs="$subdirs d30v" ;; epifania) subdirs="$subdirs epifania"+ ;;+cpu0) subdirs="$subdirs cpu0" ;; fr30) subdirs="$subdirs fr30" ;;


# setjmp/longjmp za cpu0. O jmpbuf je parece com isto:## Registerjmpbuf offset# $90x00# $100x04# $110x08# $120x0c# $130x10# $140x14# $150x18.macro save regst\reg,@r4add#4,r4.endm.macro return regld @r4,\regadd#4,r4.endm.text.globalsetjmpsetjmp:st $ 9, 0($a0)st $ 10, 4($a0)st $ 11, 8($a0)st $ 12, 12( $a0)st $13 , 16($a0)st $14, 20($a0)st $15, 24($a0)# Retourneer 0 naar caller.addiu $lr, $zero, 0x0ret $lr.globallongjmplongjmp:ld $9, 0($a0)ld 10 USD, 4($a0)ld 11 USD, 8($a0)ld 12 USD, 12($a0)ld 13 USD, 16($a0)ld 14 USD, 20($a0)ld 15 USD, 24( $a0)# Zie chamador tentou retornar 0, em vez disso, retorne 1. cmp $sw, $5,$0 jne $sw, $BB1 addiu $5,$0,1$BB1: addu $2,$0,$5 ret$lr
cschen@cschendeiMac exlbt %bash

libm.a depends on the libc errno variable defined in sys/errno.h.

(Video) LVC21F 321 The LLVM Embedded Toolchain for Arm, a new open source toolchain

  • libgloss is a BSP[3]

built-in rt translator

Compiler-rt is a project with a runtime library implementation[4].Compiler-rt/lib/builtins provides functions for basic operations such as +, -,*, /, … on float or double type and conversion between float and integer or on type above 32 bits. compiler-rt/lib/builtins/README.txt[5]contains dependent functions that are called by all built-in functions. Dependent functions are a small part of libm listed in compier-rt/lib/builtins/int_math.h[6].

Table 4Dependencies built by Compiler-RT in Newlib/Libm (open source libc for Bare Metal)



already transferred

breaking up


the end, for you, you




copysign, fcabs, fmax, log, scalbn



  • fabs (may include fabsf, fabsl).

  • Only the complex type needs above, the others (float and double) depend on just abort() which I moved to lbt/exlbt/compiler-rt/cpu0/abort.c.

  • All test cases in compiler-rt/test/builtins/Unit depend on printf(%lld or %llX, …), I moved decompiler-rt/lib/sanitizer_common/sanitizer_printf.cpp to lbt/exlbt/input/sanitizer_printf.cpp .

  • These dependent functions are ported from newlib/libm.

  • Besides the built-in, the other three, Sanitizer runtimes, Profile and BlocksRuntime, are not needed by my built-in Cpu0.

Integer plus Soft float biblioteka iz libgcc[7] [8][9]are the same as the functions in the built-in rt compiler.

Although 'rt' stands for RunTime Libraries, in the built-in library most of these functions written in C are target-independent and can be compiled and statically linked to the target. When you compile the following c code, llcjsub __addsf3to call the compiler's float-rt function, because Cpu0 has no hardware float instructions, so the Cpu0 backend can't handle this and llvm treats it as a function call for a float-add statement.


// pop -goal mips-unknown-linux-gnome -S ch_call_compilerrt_func.C -problem-llvm -O ch_call_compilerrt_func.ll// ~/llvm/test/build/bak/doo -March=cpu0 -mcpu=cpu032II -relocation-model=static -File type=Like this ch_call_compilerrt_func.ll -O -/// startfast ch_call_compilerrt_func(){ fast A = 3.1; fast B = 2.2; fast C = A + B; wind back C;}
chungshu@ChungShudeMacBook-Air invoer %clang -target mips-unknown-linux-gnu -Sch_call_compilerrt_func.c -emit-llvmchungshu@ChungShudeMacBook-Air invoer %kat ch_call_compilerrt_func.ll...%4 =load float, float* %1, align4%5 =load float, float* %2, align4%6 =floating rage %4, %5chungshu@ChungShudeMacBook-Air invoer %~/llvm/test/build/bin/llc -mars=cpu0-mcpu=cpu032II -relocation-model=static -filetype=asm ch_call_compilerrt_func.ll -o -...4,20 USD (fp)5, 16 $ ($ fp)jsub __addsf3

For some bare-metal or embedded applications, C code does not need a file and high-level IO in libc. Libm provides many features to support floating point software beyond basic operations[10].Libc provides files, high-level IO functions, and basic float functions[11].

Cpu0 currently contracts Compiler-rt/lib/builtins and compiler-rt/lib/sanitizer_common/sanitizer_printf.cpp. Compiler-rt/lib/builtins is a target-independent C implementation of an orphan software library. Cpu0 currently only implements compiler-rt-12.x/cpu0/abort.c to support this feature.


Why are those libm functions called builtins in compiler-rt/lib/builtins?

(Video) Writing a compiler with LLVM - Cailin Smith - NDC Oslo 2022

Although these built-in rt compiler functions are written in C, the CPU can provide float-type or high-level instructions to translate these libm function calls into specific HW instructions for speedup.

To speed up these libm functions, many CPUs provide floating instructions for them. Of course, for implementation, clang compiles these C-float operations into llvm ir, and then the Mips backend compiles them into its HW statements. For example:

  • strujanje a, b, c; a=b*c; -> (zveket) -> %add = fmul float %0, %1[13]

Mips-backend-buildsfmulin HW instructions as follows,

  • %add = fmul float %0, %1 -> (llvm-mips) -> mul.s[13] [12]

CPU0-background-buildsfmulin libm call fmul function as follows,

  • %add = fmul float %0, %1 -> (llvm-mips) -> jsub fmul[13]

For high-level math functions, clang compiles those C-float type operations into llvm intrinsic functions, then the llvm backend on those CPUs compiles them into their HW instructions. For example, Clang compiles pow() in @llvm.pow.f32 as follows,

  • %pow = chamar float @llvm.pow.f32(float %x, float %y)[14]

AMDGPU compiles @llvm.pow.f32 into several instructions as follows:

  • %pow = chamar float @llvm.pow.f32(float %x, float %y) (llvm-AMDGPU) -> … + v_exp_f32_e32 v0, v0 + …[14]

Mips compiles @llvm.pow.f32 into several instructions as follows:

  • %pow = chamar float @llvm.pow.f32(float %x, float %y) (llvm-AMDGPU) -> jal powf[14]

Clang treats these libm functions as built-ins and compiles them into llvm ir or intrinsics so that different backends may choose to translate them into specific instructions or call libm built-in functions. Clang's commentary follows[15].

RH value CodeGen feature::EmitBuiltinExpr(...) ... // There are LLVM intrinsic/math instructions corresponding to the math library // functions other than the LLVM operation will never set errno while the math library // Currently. In addition, built-in math elements have the same semantics as your math library // Twins. So we can convert the math library and built-in calls to theirs // LLVM peers if the call is marked as 'const' (known to never set errno).

Software for floating point support

The following compiler-rt extended hygier_printf.cpp can support printf("%lld"). It is an implementation that calls some deprecated lib functions in compiler-rt/lib/builtins.


#ifndef _MATH_H_#define_MATH_H_//#ifdef HAS_COMPLEX #ifndef HUGE_VALF #define ENORME_VALF (1.0e999999999F) #end if #if !definite(ONEINDIG) #define INFINITY (HUGE_VALF) #end if #if !defined(NAN) #define NAN (0,0F/0,0F) #end if fast taxis(fast complex) ;//#end if#end if
(Video) Pacific++ 2017: Chandler Carruth "LLVM: A Modern, Open C++ Toolchain"


#ifndef _STDIO_H_#define_STDIO_H_#define stdin 0#define stdout 1#definestderr 2#define size_t unsigned int#end if


#ifndef _STDLIB_H_#define_STDLIB_H_#ifdef __cplusplusexternal "C" {#end ifarm breaking up();#ifdef __cplusplus}#end if#end if


#ifndef _STRING_H_#define_STRING_H_#end if


arm breaking up() { // cpu0.v: BREAKING Born mem 0x04 Like this("bye $lr, $ZERO, 4"); Like this("ret $lr"); }


//===-- internal_sanitizer_defs.H -----------------*- C++ -*-===////// Paper Combi O LLVM Project, sobbing O Apache License v2.0 com LLVM Exceptions.// ver https://llvm.organization/LICENSE.text for license Information.// SPDX-License-identification: Apache-2.0 COM LLVM-exception////===------------------------------------------- - --- ----------===////// Are they duration It is divided between AdresSanitizer e Thread disinfectant.// To contains macro it is used em loop-tempo libraries to code.//===------------------------------------------- - --- ----------===//#ifndef SANITIZER_DEFS_H#define SANITIZER_DEFS_H// For portability reasons inclusions To make Born Including default final.H, standard.H from los another// System Letterhead, Ali inclusions To make need some easy species What they are Born certain// em A portable pad door O taal I do.imenski space __disinfectant {#if defined(_WIN64)// 64-complaining ramen VS LLP64 the facts model.typedef not signed longo longo upwards;typedef signed longo longo sptr;#othertypedef not signed longo upwards;typedef signed longo sptr;#endif //defined(_WIN64)#bedefined(__x86_64__)// Kombi x32 VS ILP32 the facts model em 64-complaining hardware put, inclusions on arrears use// 64-complaining pointer for relaxed me quadro.typedef not signed longo longo uhwptr;#othertypedef upwards uhwptr;#end iftypedef not signed Characters u8;typedef not signed Can u16;typedef not signed int u32;typedef not signed longo longo u64;typedef signed Characters s8;typedef signed Can s16;typedef signed int s32;typedef signed longo longo s64;// Check macro#define RAW_CHECK_MSG(uitdr, msg)#define RAW_CHECK(expr) RAW_CHECK_MSG(expr, #expr)#define CHECK_IMPL(c1, op, c2)#define CHECK(a) CHECK_IMPL((a), !=, 0)#define CHECK_EQ(a, b) CHECK_IMPL((a), ==, (b))#define CHECK_NE(a, b) CHECK_IMPL((a), !=, (b))#define CHECK_LT(a, b) CHECK_IMPL((a), <, (b))#define CHECK_LE(a, b) CHECK_IMPL((a), <=, (b))#define CHECK_GT(a, b) CHECK_IMPL((a), >, (b))#define CHECK_GE(a, b) CHECK_IMPL((a), >=, (b))} // imenski space __disinfectant#end if


//===-- sanitizer_printf.cpp ---------------------------------------- ------ --------------- =------==////// Part of the LLVM project, under the Apache v2.0 license with LLVM exceptions. // See for license information. // SPDX License ID: Apache-2.0 With LLVM exception ////===--------- ---- ------------------ -------------------------------------= = =///// / This file is shared by AddressSanitizer and ThreadSanitizer. / /// Built-in printf function, used in runtime libraries. // We can't use libc printf because we intercept some of the functions // used in .//= ==---------- ---------------- -- - --------------------------===// #include "sanitizer_internal_defs.h"#include#Including#include "debug.h"external "C" int putchar(int c);external void* internal_memset(void* b, int c, size_t len);#if SANITIZER_WINDOWS && defined(_MSC_VER) && _MSC_VER < 1800 && \!defined (va_copy )# define va_copy(dst, src) ((dst) = (src))#endifnamespace __sanitizer { static int strlen(const char* s) { int len​​​​= 0; for (const char* p = s; *p != '\0'; p++) { len++; } return len;} static int AppendChar(char **buff, const char *buff_end, char c) { if (*buff < buff_end) { **buff = c; (*buff)++; } return 1; } // Add the number in the given base to the buffer. If the length is less than // |minimal_num_length|, it will be padded with leading zeros or spaces, depending // depending on the value of |path_with_zero|.static int AppendNumber(char **buff, const char *buff_end, u64 absolute_value, u8 base, u8 minimum_number_length, bool path_with_zero, negative bool, large bool, left_justified bool) { uptr const kMaxLen = 30; RAW_CHECK(base == 10 || base == 16); RAW_CHECK(base == 10 || !negative); RAW_CHECK(absolute_value || !negative); RAW_CHECK(minimum_number_length < kMaxLen); int result = 0; if (negative && minimum_num_length) --minimal_num_length; if (negative && path_with_zero) result += AppendChar(buff, buff_end, '-'); uptr num_buffer[kMaxLen]; int num_pads = 0; int position = 0; do { RAW_CHECK_MSG((uptr)pos < kMaxLen, "AppendNumber buffer overflow"); num_buffer[pos++] = absolute_value % base; absolute_value /= base; } while (absolute_value > 0); if (pos < minimum_num_length) { // Make sure the compiler doesn't insert a call to memset here. internal_memset(#_buffer[pos], 0, sizeof(num_buffer[0]) * (minimal_num_length - pos)); num_pads = minimum_num_length - pos; pos = size_minimum_number; } RAW_CHECK(position > 0); after--; for (; pos >= 0 && num_buffer[pos] == 0; pos--) { char c = (pad_with_zero || pos == 0)? '0' : ' '; if (!left_justified) result += AppendChar(buff, buff_end, c); } if (negative && !path_with_zero) result += AppendChar(buff, buff_end, '-'); for (; pos >= 0; pos--) { char = static_cast(aantal_buffer[pos]); cifra = (cifra < 10) ? '0' + znamenka: (maiúsculo? 'A': 'a') + znamenka - 10; resultaat += AppendChar(buff, buff_end, digito); } if (left_justified) { for (int i = 0; i < num_pads; i++) resultado += AppendChar(buff, buff_end, ' '); } vrati rezultat;}static int AppendUnsigned(char **buff, const char *buff_end, u64 num, u8 base, u8 minimal_num_length, bool pad_with_zero, bool uppercase, bool left_justified) { return AppendNumber(buff, buff_end, num, base, minimal_num_length , pad_with_zero, false /*negative */, uppercase, left_justified);}static int AppendSignedDecimal(char **buff, const char *buff_end, s64 num, u8 minimal_num_length, bool pad_with_zero, bool left_justified) { boolnegative = (num < 0 ) ; return AppendNumber(buff, buff_end, (u64)(negative ? -num : num), 10, minimal_num_length, pad_with_zero, negativo, false /* maiúsculas */, left_justified);}// Upotreba fato de que solicitar explicitamente 0 largura ( % 0s) resulta em UB e// interpreta largura == 0 kao "nenhuma largura solicitada":// largura == 0 - nenhuma largura solicitada// largura < 0 - justifique à esquerda s dentro e preencha-o com caracteres -width , indien nodig// largura > 0 - justifique à direita s, implementeer para cpu0static int AppendString(char **buff, const char *buff_end, int width, int max_chars, const char *s, bool left_justified) { if (!s) s = ""; int resultado = 0; if (!left_justified) { int s_len = strlen(s); while (resultado < largura - s_len) resultado += AppendChar(buff, buff_end, ' '); } for (; *s; s++ ) { if (max_chars >= 0 && resultado >= max_chars) break; resultado += AppendChar(buff, buff_end, *s); } if (left_justified) { while (largura < -resultado) resultado += AppendChar(buff, buff_end , ' '); } vrati rezultat;}static int AppendPointer(char **buff, const char *buff_end, u64 ptr_value, bool left_justified) { int rezultat = 0; resultado += AppendString(buff, buff_end, 0, -1, "0x", lijevo_opravdano); resultado += AppendUnsigned(buff, buff_end, ptr_value, 16,// Executando clang -E, pode obter ili waarde macro para SANITIZER_POINTER_FORMAT_LENGTH é (12)// SANITIZER_POINTER_FORMAT_LENGTH, (12), true /* pad_with_zero */, false /* */ maiúsculo, justificado à esquerda); resultaat retourneren;}int VSNPrintf(char *buff, int buff_length, const char *format, va_list args) { static const char *kPrintfFormatsHelp = "Formati Printf poddersteunt: % ([0-9]*)?(z|ll)? {d,u,x,X}; %P; " "%[-]([0-9]*)?(\\.\\*)?s; %c\n"; RAW_CHECK(format); RAW_CHECK(buff_length > 0); const char *buff_end = &buff[buff_length - 1]; const char *cur = format; int resultado = 0; for (; *cur; cur++) { if (*cur != '%') { resultado += AppendChar(&buff, buff_end, *cur); continuar; } cur++; bool left_justified = *cur == '-'; if (verrechtvaardigd) cur++; bool have_width = (*cur >= '0' && *cur <= '9'); bool pad_with_zero = (*cur == '0'); largura int = 0; if (have_width) { while (*cur >= ' 0' && *cur <= '9') { largura = largura * 10 + *cur++ - '0'; } } bool have_precision = (cur[0] == '.' && cur[1] == '*' ); precisão int = -1; if (have_precision) { cur += 2; precisão = va_arg(args, int); } bool have_z = (*cur == 'z'); cur += have_z; bool have_ll = ! have_z && (cur[0] == 'l' && cur[1] == 'l'); cur += have_ll * 2; s64 dval; u64 uval; const bool have_length = have_z || have_ll; const bool have_flags = have_width | | ter_comprimento; // Nema trenutka, apenas %s podržava preciznost i traženje. CHECK(!((precisão >= 0 || justificado_à esquerda) && *cur != 's')); prekidač (*cur) { case 'd': { dval = have_ll? va_arg(args, s64): have_z ? va_arg(args, sptr) : va_arg(args, int); resultado += AppendSignedDecimal(&buff, buff_end, dval, width, pad_with_zero, left_justified); quebrar; } case 'u': case 'x': case 'X': { uval = have_ll ? va_arg(args, u64): have_z ? va_arg(args, uptr) : va_arg(args, niet ondertekend); bool maiúsculas = (*cur == 'X'); resultado += AppendUnsigned(&buff, buff_end, uval, (*cur == 'u') ? 10 : 16, width, pad_with_zero, uppercase, lijevo_poravnano); quebrar; } case 'p': { RAW_CHECK_MSG(!have_flags, kPrintfFormatsHelp); resultaat += AppendPointer(&buff, buff_end, va_arg(args, uptr), lijevo_poravnano); quebrar; } hoofdlettergebruik 's': { RAW_CHECK_MSG(!have_length, kPrintfFormatsHelp); PROVJERI(!have_width || lijevo_poravnano); resultado += AppendString(&buff, buff_end, left_justified ? -width : largura, precisão, va_arg(args, char*), lijevo_justified); quebrar; } geval 'c': { RAW_CHECK_MSG(!have_flags, kPrintfFormatsHelp); resultaat += AppendChar(&buff, buff_end, va_arg(args, int)); quebrar; } case '%': { RAW_CHECK_MSG(!have_flags, kPrintfFormatsHelp); resultaat += AppendChar(&buff, buff_end, '%'); quebrar; } padrão: { RAW_CHECK_MSG(false, kPrintfFormatsHelp); } } } RAW_CHECK(buff <= buff_end); AppendChar(&buff, buff_end + 1, '\0'); resultaat retourneren;}} // namespace __sanitizerint prints(const char *string){ int pc = 0, padchar = ' '; voor (; *tekenreeks; ++tekenreeks) { putchar (*tekenreeks); ++ pc; } return pc;}extern "C" int sprintf(char *buffer, const char *format, ...) { int duljina = 1000; va_list argumenata; va_start(args, format); int potrebna_duljina = __sanitizer::VSNPrintf(buffer, duljina, format, args); va_end(args); return 0;}extern "C" int printf(const char *format, ...) { int duljina = 1000; međuspremnik znakova [1000]; va_list argumenata; va_start(args, format); int potrebna_duljina = __sanitizer::VSNPrintf(buffer, duljina, format, args); va_end(args); imprime(međuspremnik); return 0;}extern "C" int san_printf(const char *format, ...) { int duljina = 1000; međuspremnik znakova [1000]; va_list argumenata; va_start(args, format); int potrebna_duljina = __sanitizer::VSNPrintf(buffer, duljina, format, args); va_end(args); imprime(međuspremnik); terug 0;}
(Video) LVC20 313 GNU and LLVM toolchain What's new and What's next

Above are the two sanitizer_*.* files transferred from the rt compiler and I am adding code to support left alignment for number-printf and right alignment for string-printf. The following ch_float.cpp tests the float lib.


# Obrigado .c .cb Vranish ( CPU en endian passados ​​​​da linha de comando, como " make CPU =cpu032II ENDIAN=el"TARGET_LIB := libbuiltins.aBUILD_DIR := ./build-$(CPU)-$(ENDIAN)TARGET := $(BUILD_DIR)/$(TARGET_LIB)SRC_DIR := $(HOME)/llvm /llvm -project/compiler-rt/lib/builtinsPWD := $(shell pwd)TOOLDIR := ~/llvm/test/build/binCC := $(TOOLDIR)/clangAR := $(TOOLDIR)/llvm-ar# kopieer GENERIC_SOURCES van compiler-rt/lib/builtin/CMakeLists.txtGENERIC_SOURCES := \ absvdi2.c \ absvsi2.c \ absvti2.c \ adddf3.c \ addf3.c \ addvdi3.c \ addvsi3.c \ addvti3.c \ apple_versioning .c \ ashldi3.c \ ashlti3.c \ ashrdi3.c \ ashrti3.c \ bswapdi2.c \ bswapsi2.c \ clzdi2.c \ clzsi2.c \ clzti2.c \ cmpdi2.c \ cmpti2.c \ comparadof2.c \ comparaf2 .c \ ctzdi2.c \ ctzsi2.c \ ctzti2.c \ divdc3.c \ divdf3.c \ divdi3.c \ divsc3.c \ divtc3.c \ divmoddi4.c \ divmodsi4.c \ divmodti4.c \ divsc3 .c \ divsf3.c \ divsi3.c \ divti3.c \ divxc3.c \ extendsfdf2.c \ extendhfsf2.c \ ffsdi2.c \ ffssi2.c \ ffsti2.c \ fixdfdi.c \ fixdfsi.c \ fixdfti.c \ fixsfdi .c \ fixsfsi.c \ fixsfti.c \ fixunsdfdi.c \ fixunsdfsi.c \ fixunsdfti.c \ fixunssfdi.c \ fixunssfsi.c \ fixunssfti.c \ floatdidf.c \ floatdisf.c \ floatsidf.c \ floatsisf .c \ floattidf.c \ floattisf.c \ floatundidf.c \ floatundisf.c \ floatunsidf.c \ floatunsisf.c \ floatuntidf.c \ floatuntisf.c \ fp_mode.c \ int_util.c \ lshrdi3.c \ lshrti3.c \ moddi3 .c \ modsi3.c \ modti3.c \ muldc3.c \ muldf3.c \ muldi3.c \ mulodi4.c \ mulosi4.c \ muloti4.c \ mulsc3.c \ mulsf3.c \ multi3.c \ mulvdi3 .c \ mulvsi3.c \ mulvti3.c \ mulxc3.c \ negdf2.c \ negdi2.c \ negsf2.c \ negti2.c \ negvdi2.c \ negvsi2.c \ negvti2.c \ os_version_check.c \ paritydi2.c \ paritysi2 .c \ parityti2.c \ popcountdi2.c \ popcountsi2.c \ popcountti2.c \ powidf2.c \ powisf2.c \ subdf3.c \ subsf3.c \ subvdi3.c \ subvsi3.c \ subvti3.c \ trampoline_setup .c \ truncdfhf2.c \ truncdfsf2.c \ truncsfhf2.c \ ucmpdi2.c \ ucmpti2.c \ udivdi3.c \ udivmoddi4.c \ udivmodsi4.c \ udivmodti4.c \ udivsi3.c \ udivti3.c \ umoddi3.c \ umodsi3 .c \ umodti3.cSRCS := $(GENERIC_SOURCES)# Zamjena niza za svaki arhiv C.# Bijvoorbeeld, absvdi2.c transformira em ./builtins/absvdi2.cSRCS := $(SRCS:%=$( SRC_DIR) / %) $(PWD)/../cpu0/abort.c# Vervang de string za datoteku C/C++.# Kao što je prikazano, absvdi2.c transformira em ./build-$(CPU)-$(ENDIAN )/absvdi2 . c.oOBJS := $(SRCS:%=$(BUILD_DIR)/%.o)# Zamjena niza (versão do sufixo sem %).# Bijvoorbeeld, ./build/absvdi2.c.o se transformira u ./build- $ ( CPU)-$(ENDIAN)/absvdi2.c.dDEPS := $(OBJS:.o=.d)# Cada pasta em ./src precisará ser passada para o GCC para que ele posa encontrar os arquivos de cabeçalho# stdlib .h , ..., itd. najbolje je koristiti ../../includeINC_DIRS := $(shell find $(SRC_DIR) -type d) ../../include# Otvorite prvo mjesto na INC_DIRS. Portanto, moduleA se tornaria -ImoduleA. O GCC je zo -I flagINC_FLAGS := $(addprefix -I,$(INC_DIRS))# Onze sinalizadores -MMD en -MP maken Makefiles para nós! = -MMD -MP -target cpu0$(ENDIAN)-unknown-linux-gnu -static \ -fintegrated-as $(INC_FLAGS) -mcpu=$(CPU) -mllvm -has-lld=true# Een definitief ontwerp van de konstrukcija . $(TARGET): $(OBJS)$(AR) -rcs $@ $(OBJS)# Passo de construção para fonte C$(BUILD_DIR)/%.c.o: %.cmkdir -p $(dir $@)$( CC ) $(CPPFLAGS) $(CFLAGS) -c $< -o $@.PHONY: cleanclean:rm -rf $(BUILD_DIR)# Inclusive os makefiles .d. O - no f.cnt supprime os # Makefiles ausentes. In eerste instantie is het de bedoeling dat dit niet het geval is, en er is geen vraag meer naar t.cse# .c up.-include $(DEPS)


//#include "debug.h"external "C" int printf(const char *format, ...);external "C" int sprintf(char *out, const char *format, ...);#include " ch9_3_longlongshift.cpp"void test_printf(){ char buf[80]; long long a = 0x100000007fffffff; printf("a: %llX, %llx, %lld\n", a, a, a); int b = 0x10000000; printf("b: %x, %d\n", b, b); sprintf(buf, "b: %x, %d\n", b, b); printf("%s", bof); // sanitizer_printf.cpp only supports right alignment for num and left alignment // only for string. However, I change and support the correct justification for cpu0. char ptr[] = "Hello world!"; char *np = 0; int i = 5; unsigned int bs = sizeof(int)*8; int mi; mi = (1 << (bs-1)) + 1; printf("%s\n",ptr); printf("testprintf\n"); printf("%s is null pointer\n", np); printf("%d = 5\n", i); printf("%d = - max int\n", mi); printf("character %c = 'a'\n", 'a'); printf("hex %x = ff\n", 0xff); printf("hex %02x = 00\n", 0); printf("signed %d = unsigned %u = hex %x\n", -3, -3, -3); printf("%d %s(s)", 0, "message"); printf("\n"); printf("%d %s(s) with %%\n", 0, "message"); sprintf(buf, "justif: \"%-10s\"\n", "left"); printf("%s", bof); sprintf(buf, "justif: \"%10s\"\n", "right"); printf("%s", bof); sprintf(buf, " 3: %04d padded zero\n", 3); printf("%s", bof); sprintf(buf, " 3: %-4d linksjustif.\n", 3); printf("%s", bof); sprintf(buf, " 3: %4d right both sides.\n", 3); printf("%s", bof); sprintf(buf, "-3: %04d padded zero\n", -3); printf("%s", bof); sprintf(buf, "-3: %-4d linksjustif.\n", -3); printf("%s", bof); sprintf(buf, "-3: %4d right aligned.\n", -3); printf("%s", buf);} templateT test_shift_left(T a, T b) { return (a << b);}sjabloonT test_shift_right(T a, T b) { return (a >> b);}sjabloonT1 test_add(T2 a, T3 b) { T1 c = a + b; povratak c;}sjabloonT1 test_mul(T2 a, T3 b) { T1 c = a * b; povratak c;}sjabloonT1 test_div(T2 a, T3 b) { T1 c = a / b; return c;}bool check_result(const char* fn, long long res, long long esperado) { printf("%s = %lld\n", fn, res); if (res != esperado) { printf("\terror: resultado %lld, esperado %lld\n", res, esperado); } return (res == esperado);}bool check_result(const char* fn, unsigned long long res, unsigned long long esperado) { printf("%s = %llu\n", fn, res); if (res != esperado) { printf("\terror: rezultat %llu, esperado %llu\n", res, esperado); } return (res == esperado);}bool check_result(const char* fn, int res, int esperado) { printf("%s = %d\n", fn, res); if (res != esperado) { printf("\terror: rezultat %d, esperado %d\n", res, esperado); } return (res == esperado);}int main() { long long a; polu sinal longo longo b; int c; test_printf(); a = teste_longlong_shift1(); check_result("test_longlong_shift1()", a, 289LL); a = test_longlong_shift2(); check_result("test_longlong_shift2()", a, 22LL);// bel __ashldi3 a = test_shift_left(0x12LL, 4LL); // 0x120 = 288 check_result("test_shift_left(0x12LL, 4LL)", a, 288LL); // chama __ashrdi3 a = test_shift_desno(0x00166660000000a, 48LL); // 0x16 = 22 check_result("test_shift_desno(0x001666660000000a, 48LL)", a, 22LL); // chama __lshrdi3 b = test_shift_desno(0x00166660000000a, 48LLu); // 0x16 = 22 check_result("test_shift_desno(0x001666660000000a, 48LLu)", b, 22LLu); // chama __addsf3, __fixsfsi c = (int)test_add(-2,2, 3,3); // (int)1.1 = 1 check_result("(int)test_add(-2.2, 3.3)", c, 1); // chama __mulsf3, __fixsfsi c = (int)test_mul(-2,2, 3,3); // (int)-7.26 = -7 check_result("(int)test_mul(-2.2, 3.3)", c, -7); // chama __divsf3, __fixsfsi c = (int)test_div(-1,8, 0,5); // (int)-3.6 = -3 check_result("(int)test_div(-1,8, 0,5)", c, -3); // chama __extendsfdf2, __adddf3, __fixdfsi c = (int)test_add(-2,2, 3,3); // (int)1.1 = 1 check_result("(int)test_add(-2.2, 3.3)", c, 1); // chama __extendsfdf2, __adddf3, __fixdfsi c = (int)test_add(-2,2, 3,3); // (int)1.1 = 1 check_result("(int)test_add(-2.2, 3.3)", c, 1); // chama __extendsfdf2, __adddf3, __fixdfsi c = (int)test_add(-2,2, 3,3); // (int)1.1 = 1 check_result("(int)test_add(-2.2, 3.3)", c, 1); // chama __extendsfdf2, __muldf3, __fixdfsi c = (int)test_mul(-2,2, 3,3); // (int)-7.26 = -7 check_result("(int)test_mul(-2.2, 3.3)", c, -7); // poziva __extendsfdf2, __muldf3, __truncdfsf2, __fixdfsi // ! __truncdfsf2 u truncdfsf2.c ne radi za Cpu0 c = (int)test_mul(-2,2, 3,3); // (int)-7.26 = -7 check_result("(int)test_mul(-2.2, 3.3)", c, -7); // chama __divdf3, __fixdfsi c = (int)test_div(-1,8, 0,5); // (int)-3.6 = -3 check_result("(int)test_div(-1.8, 0.5)", c, -3); #if 0 // calls these three built-ins c = (int)test_mul(-2, 3); // -6 check_result("(int)test_mul(-2, 3)", c, -6); c = (int)test_div(-10, 4); // -2 <- -2*4+2, quotient:-2, remainder:2 (remainder < 4:dividend) check_result("(int)test_div(-10, 4)", c, -3); a = test_mul(-2LL, 3LL); // -6LL check_result("test_mul(-2LL, 3LL)", a, -6LL);#endif// bel __divdi3, a = test_div(-10LL, 4LL); // -3 check_result("test_div(-10LL, 4LL)", a, -2LL); retorna 0;}


SRCS := start.cpp debug.cpp higienizador_printf.cpp printf-stdarg-def.c \ cpu0-builtins.cpp ch_float.cpp lib_cpu0.cLIBBUILTINS_DIR := ../compiler-rt/builtinsINC_DIRS := ../ $(NEWLIB_DIR) /newlib/libc/include $(LBDEX_DIR)/inputLIBS := $(LIBBUILTINS_DIR)/build-$(CPU)-$(ENDIAN)/libbuiltins.ainclude
chungshu@ChungShudeMacBook-Air invoer %bash cpu032II eb Makefile.float...endian = BigEndianISR address: 000206140 /* 0: veliki endian, 1: small endian */chungshu@ChungShudeMacBook-Air verilog %iverilog -o cpu0IIs cpu0IIs.vchungshu@ChungShudeMacBook-Air verilog %./cpu0IIs...a: 100000007FFFFFFFF, 100000007ffffffff, 1152921506754330623b: 10000000, 268435456b: 10000000, 268435456Hello world!test printfis a null pointer5 = 5-2147483647 = - max invchar a = 'a'hexadecimal ff = ffhex 00 = 00signed -3 = unsigned 4294967293 = fffffffd hex0 message(s)0 messages with %justification: "left"justify: "of course"3:0003 null filled3:3 from left opravdano.3:3 righteously.-3: -003 null filled-3: -3 left alignment.-3: -3 exact justification.teste_longlong_shift1() = 289teste_longlong_shift2() = 22test_shift_links(0x12, 4LL) = 288test_shift_right(0x00166660000000a, 48LL) = 22test_shift_right(0x00166660000000a, 48LLu) = 22(int)test_add(-2,2, 3,3) = 1(int)mul_test(-2,2, 3,3) = -7(int)test_div(-1,8, 0,5) = -3(int)test_add(-2,2, 3,3) = 1(int)test_add(-2,2, 3,3) = 1(int)test_add(-2,2, 3,3) = 1(int)mul_test(-2,2, 3,3) = -7(int)mul_test(-2,2, 3,3) = -7(int)test_div(-1,8, 0,5) = -3test_div(-10LL, 4LL) = -2...RET for PC < 0, done!

Exlbt/input/compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit is copied from compiler-rt/test/builtins/Unit as follows,


#include "debug.h"#includeextern "C" int printf(const char *format, ...);extern "C" int sprintf(char *out, const char *format, ...);extern "C" int absvdi2_test();extern "C" int absvsi2_test();extern "C" int absvti2_test();extern "C" int adddf3vfp_test();extern "C" int addsf3vfp_test();extern "C" int addvdi3_test();extern "C" int addvsi3_test();extern "C" int addvti3_test();extern "C" int ashldi3_test();extern "C" int ashlti3_test();extern "C" int ashrdi3_test();extern "C" int ashrti3_test();// atomic.c need memcmp(...)//extern "C" int atomic_test();extern "C" int bswapdi2_test();extern "C" int bswapsi2_test();extern "C" int clzdi2_test();extern "C" int clzsi2_test();extern "C" int clzti2_test();extern "C" int cmpdi2_test();extern "C" int cmpti2_test();extern "C" int comparedf2_test();extern "C" int comparesf2_test();// Needless to compare compiler_rt_logb() with logb() of libm//extern "C" int compiler_rt_logb_test();//extern "C" int compiler_rt_logbf_test();//extern "C" int compiler_rt_logbl_test();extern "C" int cpu_model_test();extern "C" int ctzdi2_test();extern "C" int ctzsi2_test();extern "C" int ctzti2_test();// div for complex type need libm: fabs, isinf, ..., skip it at this point#ifdef HAS_COMPLEXextern "C" int divdc3_test();#endifextern "C" int divdf3_test();extern "C" int divdf3vfp_test();extern "C" int divdi3_test();extern "C" int divmodsi4_test();extern "C" int divmodti4_test();#ifdef HAS_COMPLEXextern "C" int divsc3_test();#endifextern "C" int divsf3_test();extern "C" int divsf3vfp_test();extern "C" int divsi3_test();#ifdef HAS_COMPLEXextern "C" int divtc3_test();#endifextern "C" int divtf3_test();extern "C" int divti3_test();#ifdef HAS_COMPLEXextern "C" int divxc3_test();#endifextern "C" int enable_execute_stack_test();extern "C" int eqdf2vfp_test();extern "C" int eqsf2vfp_test();extern "C" int eqtf2_test();extern "C" int extenddftf2_test();extern "C" int extendhfsf2_test();extern "C" int extendhftf2_test();extern "C" int extendsfdf2vfp_test();extern "C" int extendsftf2_test();#if 0extern "C" int gcc_personality_test();#endifextern "C" int gedf2vfp_test();extern "C" int gesf2vfp_test();extern "C" int getf2_test();extern "C" int gtdf2vfp_test();extern "C" int gtsf2vfp_test();extern "C" int gttf2_test();extern "C" int ledf2vfp_test();extern "C" int lesf2vfp_test();extern "C" int letf2_test();extern "C" int lshrdi3_test();extern "C" int lshrti3_test();extern "C" int ltdf2vfp_test();extern "C" int ltsf2vfp_test();extern "C" int lttf2_test();extern "C" int moddi3_test();extern "C" int modsi3_test();extern "C" int modst3_test();extern "C" int modti3_test();#ifdef HAS_COMPLEXextern "C" int muldc3_test();#endifextern "C" int muldf3vfp_test();extern "C" int muldi3_test();extern "C" int mulodi4_test();extern "C" int mulosi4_test();extern "C" int muloti4_test();#ifdef HAS_COMPLEXextern "C" int mulsc3_test();#endifextern "C" int mulsf3vfp_test();//extern "C" int mulsi3_test(); no this mulsi3.c#ifdef HAS_COMPLEXextern "C" int multc3_test();#endifextern "C" int multf3_test();extern "C" int multi3_test();extern "C" int mulvdi3_test();extern "C" int mulvsi3_test();extern "C" int mulvti3_test();#ifdef HAS_COMPLEXextern "C" int mulxc3_test();#endifextern "C" int nedf2vfp_test();extern "C" int negdf2vfp_test();extern "C" int negdi2_test();extern "C" int negsf2vfp_test();extern "C" int negti2_test();extern "C" int negvdi2_test();extern "C" int negvsi2_test();extern "C" int negvti2_test();extern "C" int nesf2vfp_test();extern "C" int netf2_test();/* need rand, signbit, ...extern "C" int paritydi2_test();extern "C" int paritysi2_test();extern "C" int parityti2_test();extern "C" int popcountdi2_test();extern "C" int popcountsi2_test();extern "C" int popcountti2_test();extern "C" int powidf2_test();extern "C" int powisf2_test();extern "C" int powitf2_test();extern "C" int powixf2_test();*/extern "C" int subdf3vfp_test();extern "C" int subsf3vfp_test();extern "C" int subtf3_test();extern "C" int subvdi3_test();extern "C" int subvsi3_test();extern "C" int subvti3_test();extern "C" int trampoline_setup_test();extern "C" int truncdfhf2_test();extern "C" int truncdfsf2_test();extern "C" int truncdfsf2vfp_test();extern "C" int truncsfhf2_test();extern "C" int trunctfdf2_test();extern "C" int trunctfhf2_test();extern "C" int trunctfsf2_test();extern "C" int ucmpdi2_test();extern "C" int ucmpti2_test();extern "C" int udivdi3_test();extern "C" int udivmoddi4_test();extern "C" int udivmodsi4_test();extern "C" int udivmodti4_test();extern "C" int udivsi3_test();extern "C" int udivti3_test();extern "C" int umoddi3_test();extern "C" int umodsi3_test();extern "C" int umodti3_test();extern "C" int unorddf2vfp_test();extern "C" int unordsf2vfp_test();extern "C" int unordtf2_test();void show_result(const char *fn, int res) { if (res == 1) printf("%s: FAIL!\n", fn); else if (res == 0) printf("%s: PASS!\n", fn); else if (res == -1) printf("%s: SKIPPED!\n", fn); else { printf("FIXME!"); abort(); }}int main() { int res = 0;// pre-defined compiler macro (from llc -march=cpu0${ENDIAN} or// clang -target cpu0${ENDIAN}-unknown-linux-gnu#ifdef __CPU0EB__ printf("__CPU0EB__\n");#endif#ifdef __CPU0EL__ printf("__CPU0EL__\n");#endif res = absvdi2_test(); show_result("absvdi2_test()", res); res = absvsi2_test(); show_result("absvsi2_test()", res); res = absvti2_test(); show_result("absvti2_test()", res); res = adddf3vfp_test(); show_result("adddf3vfp_test()", res); res = addsf3vfp_test(); show_result("addsf3vfp_test()", res); res = addvdi3_test(); show_result("addvdi3_test()", res); res = addvsi3_test(); show_result("addvsi3_test()", res); res = addvti3_test(); show_result("addvti3_test()", res); res = ashldi3_test(); show_result("ashldi3_test()", res); res = ashlti3_test(); show_result("ashlti3_test()", res); res = ashrdi3_test(); show_result("ashrdi3_test()", res); res = ashrti3_test(); show_result("ashrti3_test()", res);#if 0 // atomic.c need memcmp(...) res = atomic_test(); show_result("atomic_test()", res);#endif res = bswapdi2_test(); show_result("bswapdi2_test()", res); res = bswapsi2_test(); show_result("bswapsi2_test()", res); res = clzdi2_test(); show_result("clzdi2_test()", res); res = clzsi2_test(); show_result("clzsi2_test()", res); res = clzti2_test(); show_result("clzti2_test()", res); res = cmpdi2_test(); show_result("cmpdi2_test()", res); res = cmpti2_test(); show_result("cmpti2_test()", res); res = comparedf2_test(); show_result("comparedf2_test()", res); res = comparesf2_test(); show_result("comparesf2_test()", res);// res = compiler_rt_logb_test();// show_result("compiler_rt_logb_test()", res);// res = compiler_rt_logbf_test();// show_result("compiler_rt_logbf_test()", res);// res = compiler_rt_logbl_test();// show_result("compiler_rt_logbl_test()", res); res = cpu_model_test(); show_result("cpu_model_test()", res); res = ctzdi2_test(); show_result("ctzdi2_test()", res); res = ctzsi2_test(); show_result("ctzsi2_test()", res); res = ctzti2_test(); show_result("ctzti2_test()", res);#ifdef HAS_COMPLEX res = divdc3_test(); show_result("divdc3_test()", res);#endif res = divdf3_test(); show_result("divdf3_test()", res); res = divdf3vfp_test(); show_result("divdf3vfp_test()", res); res = divdi3_test(); show_result("divdi3_test()", res); res = divmodsi4_test(); show_result("divmodsi4_test()", res); res = divmodti4_test(); show_result("divmodti4_test()", res);#ifdef HAS_COMPLEX res = divsc3_test(); show_result("divsc3_test()", res);#endif res = divsf3_test(); show_result("divsf3_test()", res); res = divsf3vfp_test(); show_result("divsf3vfp_test()", res); res = divsi3_test(); show_result("divsi3_test()", res);#ifdef HAS_COMPLEX res = divtc3_test(); show_result("divtc3_test()", res);#endif res = divtf3_test(); show_result("divtf3_test()", res); res = divti3_test(); show_result("divti3_test()", res);#ifdef HAS_COMPLEX res = divxc3_test(); show_result("divxc3_test()", res);#endif#if 0 res = enable_execute_stack_test(); show_result("enable_execute_stack_test()", res);#endif res = eqdf2vfp_test(); show_result("eqdf2vfp_test()", res); res = eqsf2vfp_test(); show_result("eqsf2vfp_test()", res); res = eqtf2_test(); show_result("eqtf2_test()", res); res = extenddftf2_test(); show_result("extenddftf2_test()", res); res = extendhfsf2_test(); show_result("extendhfsf2_test()", res); res = extendhftf2_test(); show_result("extendhftf2_test()", res); res = extendsfdf2vfp_test(); show_result("extendsfdf2vfp_test()", res); res = extendsftf2_test(); show_result("extendsftf2_test()", res);#if 0 res = gcc_personality_test(); show_result("gcc_personality_test()", res);#endif res = gedf2vfp_test(); show_result("gedf2vfp_test()", res); res = gesf2vfp_test(); show_result("gesf2vfp_test()", res); res = getf2_test(); show_result("getf2_test()", res); res = gtdf2vfp_test(); show_result("gtdf2vfp_test()", res); res = gtsf2vfp_test(); show_result("gtsf2vfp_test()", res); res = gttf2_test(); show_result("gttf2_test()", res); res = ledf2vfp_test(); show_result("ledf2vfp_test()", res); res = lesf2vfp_test(); show_result("lesf2vfp_test()", res); res = letf2_test(); show_result("letf2_test()", res); res = lshrdi3_test(); show_result("lshrdi3_test()", res); res = lshrti3_test(); show_result("lshrti3_test()", res); res = ltdf2vfp_test(); show_result("ltdf2vfp_test()", res); res = ltsf2vfp_test(); show_result("ltsf2vfp_test()", res); res = lttf2_test(); show_result("lttf2_test()", res); res = moddi3_test(); show_result("moddi3_test()", res); res = modsi3_test(); show_result("modsi3_test()", res); res = modti3_test(); show_result("modti3_test()", res);#ifdef HAS_COMPLEX res = muldc3_test(); show_result("muldc3_test()", res);#endif res = muldf3vfp_test(); show_result("muldf3vfp_test()", res); res = muldi3_test(); show_result("muldi3_test()", res); res = mulodi4_test(); show_result("mulodi4_test()", res); res = mulosi4_test(); show_result("mulosi4_test()", res); res = muloti4_test(); show_result("muloti4_test()", res);#ifdef HAS_COMPLEX res = mulsc3_test(); show_result("mulsc3_test()", res);#endif res = mulsf3vfp_test(); show_result("mulsf3vfp_test()", res);// no mulsi3.c// res = mulsi3_test();// show_result("mulsi3_test()", res);#ifdef HAS_COMPLEX res = multc3_test(); show_result("multc3_test()", res);#endif res = multf3_test(); show_result("multf3_test()", res); res = multi3_test(); show_result("multi3_test()", res); res = mulvdi3_test(); show_result("mulvdi3_test()", res); res = mulvsi3_test(); show_result("mulvsi3_test()", res); res = mulvti3_test(); show_result("mulvti3_test()", res);#ifdef HAS_COMPLEX res = mulxc3_test(); show_result("mulxc3_test()", res);#endif res = nedf2vfp_test(); show_result("nedf2vfp_test()", res); res = negdf2vfp_test(); show_result("negdf2vfp_test()", res); res = negdi2_test(); show_result("negdi2_test()", res); res = negsf2vfp_test(); show_result("negsf2vfp_test()", res); res = negti2_test(); show_result("negti2_test()", res); res = negvdi2_test(); show_result("negvdi2_test()", res); res = negvsi2_test(); show_result("negvsi2_test()", res); res = negvti2_test(); show_result("negvti2_test()", res); res = nesf2vfp_test(); show_result("nesf2vfp_test()", res); res = netf2_test(); show_result("netf2_test()", res);/* need rand, signbit, ... res = paritydi2_test(); show_result("paritydi2_test()", res); res = paritysi2_test(); show_result("paritysi2_test()", res); res = parityti2_test(); show_result("parityti2_test()", res); res = popcountdi2_test(); show_result("popcountdi2_test()", res); res = popcountsi2_test(); show_result("popcountsi2_test()", res); res = popcountti2_test(); show_result("popcountti2_test()", res); res = powidf2_test(); show_result("powidf2_test()", res); res = powisf2_test(); show_result("powisf2_test()", res); res = powitf2_test(); show_result("powitf2_test()", res); res = powixf2_test(); show_result("powixf2_test()", res);*/ res = subdf3vfp_test(); show_result("subdf3vfp_test()", res); res = subsf3vfp_test(); show_result("subsf3vfp_test()", res); res = subtf3_test(); show_result("subtf3_test()", res); res = subvdi3_test(); show_result("subvdi3_test()", res); res = subvsi3_test(); show_result("subvsi3_test()", res); res = subvti3_test(); show_result("subvti3_test()", res); res = trampoline_setup_test(); show_result("trampoline_setup_test()", res); res = truncdfhf2_test(); show_result("truncdfhf2_test()", res); res = truncdfsf2_test(); show_result("truncdfsf2_test()", res); res = truncdfsf2vfp_test(); show_result("truncdfsf2vfp_test()", res); res = truncsfhf2_test(); show_result("truncsfhf2_test()", res); res = trunctfdf2_test(); show_result("trunctfdf2_test()", res); res = trunctfhf2_test(); show_result("trunctfhf2_test()", res); res = trunctfsf2_test(); show_result("trunctfsf2_test()", res); res = ucmpdi2_test(); show_result("ucmpdi2_test()", res); res = ucmpti2_test(); show_result("ucmpti2_test()", res); res = udivdi3_test(); show_result("udivdi3_test()", res); res = udivmoddi4_test(); show_result("udivmoddi4_test()", res); res = udivmodsi4_test(); show_result("udivmodsi4_test()", res); res = udivmodti4_test(); show_result("udivmodti4_test()", res); res = udivsi3_test(); show_result("udivsi3_test()", res); res = udivti3_test(); show_result("udivti3_test()", res); res = umoddi3_test(); show_result("umoddi3_test()", res); res = umodsi3_test(); show_result("umodsi3_test()", res); res = umodti3_test(); show_result("umodti3_test()", res); res = unorddf2vfp_test(); show_result("unorddf2vfp_test()", res); res = unordsf2vfp_test(); show_result("unordsf2vfp_test()", res); res = unordtf2_test(); show_result("unordtf2_test()", res); return 0;}


# CPU en endian passados ​​​​da linha de comando, como # "make -f Makefile.builtins CPU=cpu032II ENDIAN=eb ou# "make -f Makefile.builtins CPU=cpu032I ENDIAN=el# start.cpp deve ser colocado no inícioSRCS : = start.cpp debug.cpp syscalls.c higienizador_printf.cpp printf-stdarg-def.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/absvdi2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/absvsi2_test.c \ kompilator -rt-test/builtins/Unit/absvti2_test.c \ kompiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/adddf3vfp_test.c \ kompiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/addsf3vfp_test.c \ kompiler-rt-test/builtins /Unit /addvdi3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/addvsi3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/addvti3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/ashldi3_test.c \ compiler -rt -test/builtins/Unit/ashlti3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/ashrdi3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/ashrti3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit /bswapdi2_test .c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/bswapsi2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/clzdi2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/clzsi2_test.c \ compiler-rt -test /builtins/Unit/clzti2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/cmpdi2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/cmpti2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/comparedf2_test .c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/comparesf2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/cpu_model_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/ctzdi2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test /builtins /Unit/ctzsi2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/ctzti2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/divdc3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/divdf3_test.c \ compiler -rt-test/builtins/Unit/divdf3vfp_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/divdi3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/divmodsi4_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins /Unit /divmodti4_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/divsc3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/divsf3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/divsf3vfp_test.c \ compiler -rt -test/builtins/Unit/divsi3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/divtc3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/divtf3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit /divti3_test .c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/divxc3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/enable_execute_stack_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/eqdf2vfp_test.c \ compiler-rt -test /builtins/Unit/eqsf2vfp_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/eqtf2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/extenddftf2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/extendhfsf2_test .c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/extendhftf2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/extendsfdf2vfp_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/extendsftf2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test /builtins /Unit/gedf2vfp_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/gesf2vfp_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/getf2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/gtdf2vfp_test.c \ compiler -rt-test/builtins/Unit/gtsf2vfp_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/gttf2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/ledf2vfp_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins /Unit /lesf2vfp_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/letf2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/lshrdi3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/lshrti3_test.c \ compiler -rt -test/builtins/Unit/ltdf2vfp_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/ltsf2vfp_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/lttf2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit /moddi3_test .c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/modsi3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/modti3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/muldc3_test.c \ compiler-rt -test /builtins/Unit/muldf3vfp_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/muldi3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/mulodi4_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/mulosi4_test .c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/muloti4_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/mulsc3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/mulsf3vfp_test.c \ compiler-rt-test /builtins /Unit/mulsi3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/multc3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/multf3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/multi3_test.c \ compiler -rt-test/builtins/Unit/mulvdi3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/mulvsi3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/mulvti3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins /Unit /mulxc3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/nedf2vfp_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/negdf2vfp_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/negdi2_test.c \ compiler -rt -test/builtins/Unit/negsf2vfp_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/negti2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/negvdi2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit /negvsi2_test .c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/negvti2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/nesf2vfp_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/netf2_test.c \ compiler-rt -test /builtins/Unit/paritydi2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/paritysi2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/parityti2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/popcountdi2_test .c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/popcountsi2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/popcountti2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/powidf2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test /builtins /Unit/powisf2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/powitf2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/powixf2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/subdf3vfp_test.c \ compiler -rt-test/builtins/Unit/subsf3vfp_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/subtf3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/subvdi3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins /Unit /subvsi3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/subvti3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/trampoline_setup_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/truncdfhf2_test.c \ kompilator -rt -test/builtins/Unit/truncdfsf2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/truncdfsf2vfp_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/truncsfhf2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit /trunctfdf2_test .c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/trunctfhf2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/trunctfsf2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/ucmpdi2_test.c \ compiler-rt -test /builtins/Unit/ucmpti2_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/udivdi3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/udivmoddi4_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/udivmodsi4_test .c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/udivmodti4_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/udivsi3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/udivti3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test /builtins /Unit/umoddi3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/umodsi3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/umodti3_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/unorddf2vfp_test.c \ compilador -rt-test/builtins/Unit/unordsf2vfp_test.c \ compiler-rt-test/builtins/Unit/unordtf2_test.c \ cpu0-builtins.cpp ch_builtins.cpp lib_cpu0.cINC_DIRS := ./ $(LBDEX_DIR)/input \ $ (HOME)/llvm/llvm-project/compiler-rt/lib/builtins \ $(NEWLIB_DIR)/newlib/libc/include \ $(NEWLIB_DIR)/libgloss LIBBUILTINS_DIR := ../compiler-rt/builtinsLIBS := $( LIBBUILTINS_DIR)/build-$(CPU)-$(ENDIAN)/libbuiltins.a \ $(NEWLIB_DIR)/build-$(CPU)-$(ENDIAN)/libm.a \ $(NEWLIB_DIR)/build-$ (CPU )-$(ENDIAN)/libc.ainclusief
(Video) Running the LLVM Tools

Run it like this,

chungshu@ChungShudeMacBook-Air invoer %bash cpu032II eb Makefile.builtins...chungshu@ChungShudeMacBook-Air verilog %./cpu0IIs...absvdi2_test(): PASSA!absvsi2_test(): PROLAZI!absvti2_test(): ANSWERS!adddf3vfp_test(): IGUALADO!addf3vfp_test(): EQUAL!addvdi3_test(): PASSOU!addvsi3_test(): PASS!addvti3_test(): MATCH!ashldi3_test(): PASS!ashlti3_test(): ANSWERS!ashrdi3_test(): PASSOU!ashrti3_test(): ANSWERS!bswapdi2_test(): PASSOU!bswapsi2_test(): PASSOU!clzdi2_test(): PASSOU!clzsi2_test(): PASSA!clzti2_test(): ANSWERS!cmpdi2_test(): PASS!cmpti2_test(): MATCH!Comparef2_test(): PASS!comparaf2_test(): PASS!cpu_model_test(): ANSWERS!ctzdi2_test(): PASS!ctzsi2_test(): PROLAZI!ctzti2_test(): ANSWERS!divdc3_test(): PASS!divdf3_test(): PASS!divdf3vfp_test(): EQUAL!divdi3_test(): PASS!divmodsi4_test(): PASS!divmotti4_test(): ANSWERS!divsf3_test(): PASS!divsf3vfp_test(): IGUALADO!divsi3_test(): PASS!divtc3_test(): PASS!divtf3_test(): MATCH!divti3_test(): ANSWERS!divxc3_test(): PASS!eqdf2vfp_test(): MATCH!eqsf2vfp_test(): MATCH!eqtf2_test(): MATCH!extendeddftf2_test(): ODGOVARA!extendhfsf2_test(): PASSOU!extendhftf2_test(): MATCH!extendsfdf2vfp_test(): ANSWERS!extendsftf2_test(): ANSWERS!gedf2vfp_test(): ANSWERS!gesf2vfp_test(): ANSWERS!getf2_test(): ANSWERS!gtdf2vfp_test(): MATCH!gtsf2vfp_test(): MATCH!gttf2_test(): MATCH!ledf2vfp_test(): MATCH!lesf2vfp_test(): ANSWERS!letf2_test(): ANSWERS!lshrdi3_test(): PASSOU!lshrti3_test(): MATCH!ltdf2vfp_test(): MATCH!ltsf2vfp_test(): MATCH!lttf2_test(): MATCH!moddi3_test(): PASS!modsi3_test(): PASS!modti3_test(): ANSWERS!muldc3_test(): PASS!muldf3vfp_test(): ANSWERS!muldi3_test(): PASS!mulodi4_test(): PASS!mulosi4_test(): PASS!muloti4_test(): MATCH!mulsc3_test(): PROLAZI!mulsf3vfp_test(): IGUALADO!multc3_test(): ANSWERS!multf3_test(): MATCH!multi3_test(): MATCH!mulvdi3_test(): PASS!mulvsi3_test(): PASSOU!mulvti3_test(): MATCH!mulxc3_test(): PASS!nedf2vfp_test(): MATCH!negdf2vfp_test(): MATCH!negdi2_test(): PASS!negsf2vfp_test(): MATCH!negti2_test(): ANSWERS!negvdi2_test(): PASSA!negvsi2_test(): PROLAZI!negvti2_test(): MATCH!nesf2vfp_test(): MATCH!netf2_test(): ANSWERS!subdf3vfp_test(): MATCH!subsf3vfp_test(): MATCH!subtf3_test(): MATCH!subvdi3_test(): PASSOU!subvsi3_test(): PROLAZI!subvti3_test(): ANSWERS!trampoline_setup_test(): ANSWERS!truncdfhf2_test(): PASS!truncdfsf2_test(): PASS!truncdfsf2vfp_test(): MATCH!truncsfhf2_test(): PASS!trunctfdf2_test(): MATCH!trunctfhf2_test(): TRUE!trunctfsf2_test(): MATCH!ucmpdi2_test(): PASS!ucmpti2_test(): ANSWERS!udivdi3_test(): PASS!udivmoddi4_test(): PASS!udivmodsi4_test(): PASS!udivmotti4_test(): ANSWERS!udivsi3_test(): PROLAZI!amaze3_test(): ANSWERS!umoddi3_test(): PASS!umodsi3_test(): PASS!umodti3_test(): ANSWERS!unorddf2vfp_test(): CORRECT!unordsf2vfp_test(): CORRECT!unordtf2_test(): ANSWERS!...RET for PC < 0, done!


What is LLVM toolchain? ›

LLVM is a set of compiler and toolchain technologies that can be used to develop a frontend for any programming language and a backend for any instruction set architecture.

What is the Cpu0 instruction set? ›

The Cpu0 instruction set can be divided into three types: L-type instructions, which are generally associated with memory operations, A-type instructions for arithmetic operations, and J-type instructions that are typically used when altering control flow (i.e. jumps).

How to make a LLVM compiler? ›

Quick start
  1. Download and install CMake. ...
  2. Open a shell. ...
  3. Create a build directory. ...
  4. Execute this command in the shell replacing path/to/llvm/source/root with the path to the root of your LLVM source tree: ...
  5. After CMake has finished running, proceed to use IDE project files, or start the build from the build directory:

How to set up LLVM? ›

Follow the steps below.
  1. Create a directory to host your LLVM pass.
  2. Update the CMake file in the Transforms directory.
  3. Create a CMake file for your LLVM pass.
  4. CPP file for your LLVM pass.
  5. Compiling your first pass.

What are the three components of a toolchain? ›

A simple software development toolchain may consist of a compiler and linker (which transform the source code into an executable program), libraries (which provide interfaces to the operating system), and a debugger (which is used to test and debug created programs).

What is the difference between gnu toolchain and LLVM toolchain? ›

LLVM and the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) are both compilers. The difference is that GCC supports a number of programming languages while LLVM isn't a compiler for any given language. LLVM is a framework to generate object code from any kind of source code.

What is an example of a CPU instruction set? ›

Instruction set

Some common examples of instruction sets are: JUMP – jump instruction set is used to jump to any designated address of RAM. ADD – add instruction set is used to add any two numbers together. LOAD – load instruction set is used to load any required information from the RAM to the CPU.

What are two instruction sets that the CPU uses? ›


CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) and RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) are two forms of CPU design.

What is the difference between instruction set and architecture? ›

"Instruction Set" is the set of instructions that a specific CPU actually supports. "Instruction Set Architecture" is the set of instructions that a CPU (that implements that ISA) might or might not support.

How many lines of code is LLVM? ›

In most GNU tools, the regression test suite is included with the main source. However for LLVM, the regression tests are a separate code base of 500 thousand lines.

Which language is best for LLVM? ›

The typical way to work with LLVM is via code in a language you're comfortable with (and that has support for LLVM's libraries, of course). Two common language choices are C and C++. Many LLVM developers default to one of those two for several good reasons: LLVM itself is written in C++.

Why LLVM is better than GCC? ›

Both GCC and LLVM requires architecture-specific backend (64-bit x86, ARM, etc). 2. The benefit of LLVM is that it does not do as much as GCC does during conversion to some intermediate representation so people could do more (for example, analysis) with the LLVM IR than GCC RTL?

What are the different types of instructions in LLVM? ›

Public Member Functions
Instruction (const Instruction &)=delete
const Instruction *user_back () const
const BasicBlock *getParent () const
BasicBlock *getParent ()
425 more rows

What are the components of LLVM build? ›

The LLVM project has multiple components. The core of the project is itself called “LLVM”. This contains all of the tools, libraries, and header files needed to process intermediate representations and converts it into object files. Tools include an assembler, disassembler, bitcode analyzer, and bitcode optimizer.

Is LLVM a cross compiler? ›

On the other hand, Clang/LLVM is natively a cross-compiler, meaning that one set of programs can compile to all targets by setting the -target option.

How do you make a toolchain? ›

Creating a toolchain with Terraform

Create a Terraform configuration file that is named . In this file, add the configuration to create a toolchain by using the HashiCorp Configuration Language. For more information about using this configuration language, see the Terraform documentation.

What is an example of a toolchain? ›

Some examples of toolchains consisting of open source tools are: Gradle -- for building application components; Jenkins -- for integrating separate code components; and. Selenium -- for automated application testing.

Is a toolchain a compiler? ›

Quite often, the toolchain used for embedded development is a cross toolchain, or more commonly known as a cross compiler. All the programs (like GCC) run on a host system of a specific architecture (such as x86), but they produce binary code (executables) to run on a different architecture (for example, ARM).

What is the difference between toolchain and cross compiler? ›

A cross-compiler is a compiler where the target is different from the host. A toolchain is the set of compiler + linker + librarian + any other tools you need to produce the executable (+ shared libraries, etc) for the target. A debugger and/or IDE may also count as part of a toolchain.

Is clang a toolchain? ›

Clang is only one component in a complete tool chain for C family programming languages. In order to assemble a complete toolchain, additional tools and runtime libraries are required.

What is toolchain for C language? ›

A toolchain is a set of tools (such as a compiler, linker, and assembler) intended to build your project. Additional tools, such as a debugger, can be associated with a toolchain. There can be several toolchains available, depending on the compilers installed on your system.

How does CPU architecture work? ›

The CPU contains three major components: memory, control unit, and the ALU(arithmetic and logic unit). The modern CPU architecture is implemented on ICs(Integrated Circuits), with one or two single metal-oxide-semiconductor IC chips. Microprocessor chips with multiple CPUs are called multi-core processors.

What are the 3 things the CPU does to instructions? ›

CPU Operations

The four primary functions of a processor are fetch, decode, execute and write back. Fetch- is the operation which receives instructions from program memory from a systems RAM. Execute- is where the operation is performed. Each part of the CPU that is needed is activated to carry out the instructions.

How are CPU instructions stored? ›

Instructions are stored in memory and the contents of the PC register are used as the starting address from where the next to be executed instruction is read. Because the length of an 68k instruction is bytes can vary decoding and reading the instruction from memory (steps 1 and 2) is an iterative process.

What are the two primary components of a CPU architecture? ›

The first is the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performs simple arithmetic and logical operations. Second is the control unit (CU), which manages the various components of the computer.

What are the two main architectures of CPU design? ›

The two most common types of processor architecture are x86 and ARM. X86 processors are used in a wide range of devices, from desktop computers to servers.

What are the two main types of CPU architecture? ›

The evolution of processors

Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) and Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) are the two major approaches to processor architecture. CISC processors have a single processing unit, external memory, and a small register set with hundreds of different instructions.

What is the most commonly used CPU architecture? ›

x86 is the most widely used instruction set on PCs, and perhaps the one with the most history. x86 has its origins in the 1970s. After launching a 4-bit chip in 1971 (the first microprocessor), Intel introduced its 8008 8-bit CPU in 1972, shortly followed by the also-8-bit 8080 in 1974.

What are the most common CPU architectures? ›

What are the most common CPU architectures and system platforms for personal computers?
  • arm - 32-bit Advanced RISC Machine.
  • arm64 - 64-bit Advanced RISC Machine.
  • ia32 - 32-bit Intel Architecture.
  • mips - 32-bit Microprocessor.
  • mipsel - 64-bit Microprocessor.
  • ppc - PowerPC Architecture.
  • ppc64 - 64-bit PowerPC Architecture.
Dec 11, 2021

What are the 5 stages of instruction set architecture? ›

In the early days of computer hardware, Reduced Instruction Set Computer Central Processing Units (RISC CPUs) was designed to execute one instruction per cycle, five stages in total. Those stages are, Fetch, Decode, Execute, Memory, and Write.

How long does it take to build a LLVM? ›

LLVM does take a long time to compile, but four hours is an exaggeration. A mid-range computer can compile it in 30 minutes with -j4, and a good computer can compile it in 10 with -j8. Core duo netbook with 4GB RAM and 5400 RPM hard disk. I can assure you it really does take 4 hours.

Does LLVM have an assembler? ›

llvm-as is the LLVM assembler. It reads a file containing human-readable LLVM assembly language, translates it to LLVM bitcode, and writes the result into a file or to standard output.

What is LLVM assembly code? ›

The LLVM code representation is designed to be used in three different forms: as an in-memory compiler IR, as an on-disk bytecode representation (suitable for fast loading by a Just-In-Time compiler), and as a human readable assembly language representation.

Is LLVM still used? ›

LLVM is now used as a common infrastructure to implement a broad variety of statically and runtime compiled languages (e.g., the family of languages supported by GCC, Java, . NET, Python, Ruby, Scheme, Haskell, D, as well as countless lesser known languages).

Why is LLVM so popular? ›

Each library supports a particular component in a typical compiler pipeline (lexing, parsing, optimizations of a particular type, machine code generation for a particular architecture, etc.). What makes it so popular is that its modular design allows its functionality to be adapted and reused very easily.

What is the competitor of LLVM? ›

If you're looking for LLVM alternative as a backend for your language, then there are several platforms - JVM, CLR, and also GCC's libgccjit.

Which C compiler produces fastest code? ›

The Zapcc compiler is the fastest compiler in this test, handily beating the nearest competitor by a factor of more than 1.6x. The PGI compiler is the slowest compiler in the test. According to the Portland Group website, they are working on an LLVM-based update to the PGI compiler, which may improve the compile time.

What is the difference between LLVM and Clang? ›

There are 2 different things here. LLVM is a backend compiler meant to build compilers on top of it. It deals with optimizations and production of code adapted to the target architecture. CLang is a front end which parses C, C++ and Objective C code and translates it into a representation suitable for LLVM.

Is LLVM a VM? ›

LLVM — Low-Level Virtual Machine — a compiler framework that aims to make lifelong program analysis and transformation available for arbitrary software, and in a manner that is transparent to programmers.

What is the difference between array and vector in LLVM? ›

The array type represents a specifically sized array, pointer types are unsized/unknown size arrays, vector types represent specifically sized arrays that allow for use of SIMD instructions. " So it's better to decide whether or not vector is desired.

What are the 3 types of instruction format? ›

Types of instruction format include: Zero(0) Address Instruction format. One(1) Address Instruction format. Two(2) Address Instruction format.

What is the difference between call and invoke in LLVM? ›

call instruction is the normal C-style call where program resumes from the next instruction following the function call once function returns. invoke can be used to handle exception in a way that when the function did not return normally, it would 'resume' from a different basic block (a.k.a landing pad).

Is LLVM stack based or register based? ›

LLVM is designed to support code generation for register machines, and this hin- ders the wide use of LLVM for stack machines.

How does LLVM backend work? ›

The code generator backend maps instruction operands to fields in the instruction. Whenever a bit in the instruction encoding Inst is assigned to field without a concrete value, an operand from the outs or ins list is expected to have a matching name. This operand then populates that undefined field.

How to build LLVM on Windows? ›

An Example Using the LLVM Tool Chain
  1. First, create a simple C file, name it ' hello.c ': ...
  2. Next, compile the C file into an LLVM bitcode file: ...
  3. Run the program using the just-in-time compiler: ...
  4. Use the llvm-dis utility to take a look at the LLVM assembly code: ...
  5. Compile the program to object code using the LLC code generator:

Is LLVM a toolchain? ›

LLVM is a set of compiler and toolchain technologies that can be used to develop a frontend for any programming language and a backend for any instruction set architecture.

What linker does LLVM use? ›

LLD is a linker from the LLVM project that is a drop-in replacement for system linkers and runs much faster than them. It also provides features that are useful for toolchain developers. The linker supports ELF (Unix), PE/COFF (Windows), Mach-O (macOS) and WebAssembly in descending order of completeness.

What does a toolchain do? ›

What is the purpose of a toolchain? The purpose of a software toolchain is to have a group of linked software tools that are optimized for a specific programming process. The output generated by one tool in the chain is used by the next tool as the input.

What is the difference between toolchain and cross-compiler? ›

A cross-compiler is a compiler where the target is different from the host. A toolchain is the set of compiler + linker + librarian + any other tools you need to produce the executable (+ shared libraries, etc) for the target. A debugger and/or IDE may also count as part of a toolchain.

What is toolchain in Linux? ›

A toolchain is a set of distinct software development tools that are linked (or chained) together by specific stages such as GCC, binutils and glibc (a portion of the GNU Toolchain). Optionally, a toolchain may contain other tools such as a debugger or a compiler for a specific programming language, such as C++.

What is the difference between framework and toolchain? ›

Framework is a set of source files which implement Arduino specification. Toolchain is a compiler which converts source files into machine code.

Is GCC a toolchain? ›

GCC is nowadays one of the reference toolchains to build embedded systems, due to its modular structure allowing backends for multiple architectures.

What is cross platform toolchain? ›

A toolchain is the set of C/C++ run-time libraries and the tools (mainly the compiler, assemble, and linker) that turns the source code into binaries that the target hardware can run. Cross-platform means the tools run on one platform while building applications for another [1].

Is GCC a cross compiler? ›

GCC, a free software collection of compilers, can be set up to cross compile. It supports many platforms and languages. Cross-compiling GCC requires that a portion of the target platform's C standard library be available on the host platform.

What is toolchain integration? ›

A DevOps toolchain is a collection of tools, often from a variety of vendors, that operate as an integrated unit to design, build, test, manage, measure, and operate software and systems.

What compiler toolchain is used to compile the? ›

The compiler toolchain is used to allow Flowcode to compile the generated C code into a binary file that can be executed on your target microcontroller device.

How to compile C to machine code? ›

What are the 4 steps to convert C program to Machine code?
  1. Writing and editing the program.
  2. Compiling the program.
  3. Linking the program.
  4. Executing the program.
Mar 9, 2021

How to cross compile C code? ›

In order to cross-compile VTK, you need to:
  1. Install a toolchain and create a toolchain file for CMake.
  2. Build VTK natively for the build host.
  3. Run CMake for the target platform.
  4. Complete TryRunResults. cmake .
  5. Use the VTKCompileToolsConfig. cmake file from the native build.
  6. Build.

How do I install a toolchain? ›

Installing the ARM Toolchain for Windows
  1. Download and run the installer to install arm-none-eabi-gcc and arm-none-eabi-gdb. Select the default destination folder: C:\Program Files (x86)\GNU Arm Embedded Toolchain\10 2020-q4-major. ...
  2. Check that you are using the installed versions arm-none-eabi-gcc and arm-none-eabi-gdb.

Where is toolchain located in Linux? ›

The toolchain is located in the Linux SDK in the <SDK INSTALL DIR>/linux-devkit directory.

What is Buildroot toolchain? ›

Buildroot is a set of Makefiles and patches that simplifies and automates the process of building a complete and bootable Linux environment for an embedded system, while using cross-compilation to allow building for multiple target platforms on a single Linux-based development system.


1. BKK19-210 - Cross compilation with clang and LLVM tools.
2. SAN19-206 SVE/SVE2 support in LLVM and GNU toolchains
3. What Is LLVM?
4. LLVM Clang vs GCC (C development on OpenBSD)
(The OpenBSD guy)
5. LLVM and GCC Learning to work together
6. The Real Challenge for RISC-V Vector Processors - Online August 18, 2021
(RISC-V International)


Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Tyson Zemlak

Last Updated: 11/07/2023

Views: 5913

Rating: 4.2 / 5 (63 voted)

Reviews: 86% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Tyson Zemlak

Birthday: 1992-03-17

Address: Apt. 662 96191 Quigley Dam, Kubview, MA 42013

Phone: +441678032891

Job: Community-Services Orchestrator

Hobby: Coffee roasting, Calligraphy, Metalworking, Fashion, Vehicle restoration, Shopping, Photography

Introduction: My name is Tyson Zemlak, I am a excited, light, sparkling, super, open, fair, magnificent person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.